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Transboundary Species Management Integrating with Habitat Management

Transboundary Species Management Integrating with Habitat Management

Linking fisheries and habitat management is increasingly becoming recognized as an important element in the plans to promote sub-regional cooperation by looking at shared eco-systems/habitats, shared (groups) of species and related fishing activities. The SEAFDEC-Sweden project has been successful in raising awareness of the need to view fisheries as an integrated part of broader natural resources and environmental management. Furthermore, the focus on social concerns, including working/labour conditions, has led to an increased awareness of the need to address social aspects as fundamental, both in terms of natural resources utilization and in the management of fishing capacity and in combating illegal (IUU) and destructive fishing.

The Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand countries are now supportive of the establishment of larger fisheries resources conservation areas, building upon existing management areas (MPA’s, heritage sites, etc) and under the SEAFDEC-Sweden project, the establishment of larger fisheries resources conservation areas with the aim of strengthening existing management efforts has been introduced to the Andaman Sea countries, based on experiences from the Gulf of Thailand. Supporting this, documentation was provided on trans-boundary and migratory species, such as Ancohvy, Indo-Pacific Mackerel and Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.), Hilsa and related species. Whilst highlighting the nature of multi-species fisheries, the examples of trans-boundary movements indicated areas for potential sub regional cooperation.

Local knowledge is recognised as a factor to be recognized in developing adaptive capacity, specifically on monitoring and control aspects. The Project has highlighted success stories of community involvement in fisheries management using traditional practices, throughout its work.

Monitoring, Record and Control of Large-scale & Small-scale Fishing

Monitoring, Record and Control of Large-scale & Small-scale Fishing

A common problem faced by all participating countries is the encroachment of larger vessels into coastal waters and destructive fishing in critical habitats of importance. To reverse the trend there is a need for countries to come together and agree on joint management approaches. In promoting efforts to address the management of fishing capacity, the SEAFDEC-Sweden project has been able to emphasize important management areas through a sequence of sub-regional and regional meetings. These events have aimed to facilitate regional and sub-regional cooperation and to promote increased efforts with respect to MCS vessel records and inventory and Port monitoring, in order to monitor, assess and record the status of fisheries in the Gulf of Thailand, the Andaman Sea and the Region as a whole.

Policy Development Processes for the Drafting and Implementation of Regional & Sub-regional Agreements

Policy Development Processes for the Drafting and Implementation of Regional & Sub-regional Agreements

Progress in the promotion of sub-regional cooperation has been pursued under the SEAFDEC-Sweden. In 2014-2015, a series of bilateral meetings and workshops between neighboring countries were conducted for each sub-region in order to facilitate discussion and explore effective ways and means of improving fisheries management for sustainability of fisheries resources and fisheries/habitat management in the respective sub-regions:

  • Gulf of Thailand sub-region: In following-up to the 4th Meeting of the Gulf of Thailand sub-region (held in 2013), bilateral dialogues were arranged for countries bordering the Gulf of Thailand, namely: Thailand-Malaysia (5-7 March 2014, in Penang, Malaysia), and Cambodia-Viet Nam (5-7 March 2014 in Phu Quoc, Viet Nam and 6-7 October 2014 in Bangkok, Thailand, respectively) and Cambodia-Thailand (January 2015) and 5th Meeting of the Gulf of Thailand sub-region (28-29 September 2015).
  • Andaman Sea sub-region: Sub-regional consultative meeting was organized on 27-28 May 2014 in Phuket, Thailand to facilitate Thailand-Myanmar sub-regional cooperation for fisheries management around the North Andaman Sea/Myeik Archipelago. The cooperation in this sub-region was built upon the working model for a collaborative management structure as initiated by the CORIN-Asia (through the support of the BOBLME project), as well as the progress of actions being implemented by BOBLME, SEAFDEC and other relevant partners.
  • Mekong River Basin sub-region: Bilateral dialogues were arranged for Cambodia-Lao PDR on 4-6 June 2014 in Siem Reap and on 8-9 October 2014 in Bangkok, respectively. Through such dialogues, it was agreed that a series of workshops and trainings would be convened in 2015 to review legal framework of the two countries, particularly for specific areas of Preah Vihear (Cambodia) and Champasak Province (Lao PDR) aiming to share information and raise awareness among concerned officers.

    During the aforementioned bilateral events, the respective countries provided and shared knowledge and experiences on the current fisheries status and existing legal frameworks, and come up with action plans focusing on fisheries and habitat management, particularly for critical habitats, trans-boundary stocks and economically important species (e.g. Rastrelliger spp, neritic tunas), habitats and protected areas around transboundary waters. Furthermore, the events turned out to be fruitful with the formulation of joint work plans that address problems of IUU fishing and encroachment of foreign fishing vessels, and improve records of catch/landing at ports which would facilitate the management of fishing capacity (monitoring, record and control).

    For Cambodia-Viet Nam cooperation, significant progress has been made through the signing of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the two countries in April 2014. Such MOA aims to enhance communication and corporation between Kien Giang Province of Viet Nam and Kampot and Kep Provinces of Cambodia, focusing to support fisheries sector by implementing joint actions in the areas of common interest of these coastal provinces. For Cambodia-Lao PDR, a draft MOA was prepared, aiming to enhance communication and cooperation in the areas of common concern between Stung Treng and Preah Vihear Provinces of Cambodia and Champasak Province of Lao PDR.

    In addition, as part of the efforts in strengthening Thailand-Malaysia cooperation, SEAFDEC/TD conducted a one and a half year (2014-2015) study on “Strengthening Malaysian and Thai Partnership in support of Joint Fisheries Planning and Management in the Western Gulf of Thailand”, which aimed to gather preliminary information on fishing efforts (fishing vessels, fishing gears, and people engaged in fishing activities) and landing of catches. It is anticipated that such information could be used for improving the monitoring and control of fishing activities as well as strengthening the cooperation between Malaysia and Thailand in the future.

Regional Cooperation on Sustainable Management of Neritic Tuna Resources in Southeast Asia

Regional Cooperation on Sustainable Management of Neritic Tuna Resources in Southeast Asia

In a region-wide perspective, the SEAFDEC-Sweden project had successfully advanced the regional dialogue among government agencies, NGOs and private sector to develop a regional plan of action to ensure sustainable utilization of neritic tunas. The Experts Group Meeting on Regional Plan of Action on Sustainable Utilization of Neritic Tuna in the ASEAN Region was held on 18-20 June 2014, in Krabi Province, Thailand. The Experts Group Meeting resulted in the successful development of the draft “Regional Plan of Action on Sustainable Utilization of Neritic Tunas in the ASEAN Region” (RPOA-Neritic Tuna), with the establishment of the Scientific Working Group for obtaining better information on status and trends of neritic tuna, and capacity building program to support future implementation of the RPOA-Neritic Tuna. The Project also hosted the 1st Meeting of the Scientific Working Group on Neritic Tuna Stock Assessment in the Southeast Asian Waters from 18-20 November 2014 in Shah Alam, Malaysia.

In 2015, the RPOA-Neritic Tuna adopted by the SEAFDEC Council in April 2015 and by the ASEAN Sectoral Working Group on Fisheries (ASWGFi) in June 2015. The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project continued organized the annual Meetings of the Scientific Working Group (SWG) on Neritic Tuna Stock Assessment in Southeast Asian Waters”, the latest meeting was the 5th Meeting of SWG-Neritic Tunas in 2019 in Bangkok. The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project also supported the Genetic Study of Longtail tunas (Thunnus Tonggol) for the Southeast Asian waters covering the South China Sea, Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea; and Stock Assessment for of the Neritic tunas and mackerels namely: longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol), Kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis), Indo-Pacific King Mackerel (Scomberomorus guttatus) and Narrow-barred Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson using a production model. Each year, the results of the stock study of target species present at the SEAFDEC Council and ASEAN mechanism.

More detail information and publication are available via: http://www.seafdec.or.th/neritic-tunas/index.php

The Regional Plan of Action for Management of Fishing Capacity (RPOA-Capacity)

The Regional Plan of Action for Management of Fishing Capacity (RPOA-Capacity)

The series of consultation had been conducted in order to compile information and to develop the draft of the Regional Plan of Action for Management of Fishing Capacity (RPOA-Capacity), which could serve as basis for the AMSs in formulating relevant policies and provide an enabling environment for clear direction and understanding of the need to effectively manage the fishing capacity at national level. In addition, the need for AMSs to strengthening sub-regional and regional cooperation in managing fishing capacity in the trans-boundary areas such as in the Gulf of Thailand (GOT), Andaman Sea, Sulu-Sulawesi Seas, and other sub-regional areas where the fisheries are needed to manage together. On 19-21 August 2015, the project co-hosted the Experts Group Meeting on the Regional Plan of Action for Managing Fishing Capacity (RPOA-Capacity) organized in Songkhla Province, Thailand. The Experts Group Meeting was convened in response to the suggestion made during First Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on Development of Regional Plan of Action for Management of Fishing Capacity in Southeast Asia which was organized in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in February 2015. The zero draft of the RPOA-Capacity for Southeast Asia was draft by renowned experts and finalized at the 2nd RTC on the Development of Regional Plan of Action for Management of Fishing Capacity in Southeast Asia in December 2015. The Regional Plan of Action for Managing Fishing Capacity (RPOA-Capacity) was approved at the 48th Meeting of SEAFDEC Council in April 2016, and subsequently endorsed at the 24th Meeting of ASWGFi in June 2016, resulting that the ASEAN Regional Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity was adopted by the 38th AMAF in October 2016 in Singapore.

ASEAN Regional Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity (RPOA-Capacity)
Report of the Experts Group Meeting on Development of the RPOA-Capacity
Report of the 2nd Regional Technical Consultation on Development of RPOA-Capacity

The update the progress implementation of the RPOA-Capacity has been continuously regularly through the SEAFDEC-Sweden Project events and reported at the SEAFDEC Council and ASEAN Mechanism.

Regional Effort on Improvement the Traceability System through the Electronic ASEAN Catch Documentation Scheme

Regional Effort on Improvement the Traceability System through the Electronic ASEAN Catch Documentation Scheme

The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project and the Japanese Trust Fund provided funding support to SEAFDEC to develop of the electronic ASEAN Catch Documentation Scheme (eACDS), which is one of regional initiatives between SEAFDEC and AMSs for improving the traceability system for marine capture fisheries and aiming to prevent the entry of fish and fishery products from IUU (illegal, unreported, and unregulated) fishing into the supply chain.” The introduction of the eACDS system was launched at the 49th Meeting of the SEAFDEC Council in 2017 in Brunei Darussalam. The eACDS is web-based application, can be downloaded from https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.seafdec.e_acds&hl=en. The eACDS is being testing in Brunei Darussalam and expanding to Myanmar, Malaysia and Viet Nam.

Please watch VDO

https://www.youtube.com/6xa9yJT6t04

Cross cutting Issues

A number of cross-cutting elements address during the course of project implementation that include gender, environment, climate change and capacity building.

The basic method for mainstreaming these issues is to incorporate them into the design of capacity-building and the development of local initiatives, livelihood diversification, etc rather than as an add-on to suggested activities. Capacity-building will be incorporated events at regional, sub-regional and on-site events.

Climate Change and Adaptive Capacity

Climate Change and Adaptive Capacity

It is important that organizations are made aware and can report on how management intervention and local community organization is contributing to building up adaptive capacity.

Local knowledge and actions amongst ethnic groups and coastal/inland communities, in terms of responses to natural hazards and will build up adaptive capacity in response to climate variability and climate change were emphasized.

Prince of Songkla University of Thailand

The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project in collaboration with the Prince of Songkla University of Thailand MPA) conducted the “Local Ecological Knowledge and Benefit Sharing Approaches for Small-island Fishery/Tourism Management in Lipe Island, Andaman Sea, Thailand” Lipe Island is a small island settled by a group of indigenous locals or sea gypsies called Urak Lawoi who inhabit on this island for more than a hundred year. The Urak Lawoi are fishermen by birth, having their own identity, tradition, culture and livelihood. The increasing number of tourists in Lipe Island has become a main reason that causes changes during the past few years. However, the changes have caused both physical and human driving forces that impact on the island. Obviously, the Urak Lawoi had attempted to cope with the livelihood vulnerability and its consequences by applying their indigenous knowledge as a flexible and adaptive way to provide a cushion for the changes.

Their indigenous knowledge should be systematically documented and promoted as Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK). This LEK would make the Ural Lawoi appreciate better the ecology of the Island and the surrounding marine ecosystems as these are crucial to their livelihoods.

The Documents are available:

Final Report on Local Ecological Knowledge and Benefit Sharing Approaches for Small-island Fishery/Tourism Management on Lipe Island, Andaman Sea, Thailand
Technical Guidelines on Local Ecological Knowledge and Benefit Sharing Approaches for Small-island Fishery/Tourism Management on Lipe Island, Andaman Sea, Thailand

Gender Integration, Small-Scale Fisheries, Livelihood and Social well being

Gender Integration, Small-Scale Fisheries, Livelihood and Social well being

The Project continuously made aware on the importance to strengthen the role of women on building local capacity and resilience in small-scale fisheries.

Since the “FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines),” endorsed at the 31st Session of COFI in June 2014, had been developed with emphasis on securing sustainable resource use and access rights; securing post-harvest benefits; and securing social, economic and gender among others.

The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project in collaboration with Japanese Trust Fund convened the Regional Technical Consultation (RTC) on a Regional Approach to the Implementation of the FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scales Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication in Bangkok, Thailand in 2016. The Regional Approach in support of the implementation of the FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Sale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines) was developed and presented at the SEAFDEC Council in 2017.

In many of the Member Countries, women can exercise their rights and participate on an equal footing with men in many aspects of fishing based on livelihoods. There is a need to recognize that in the process of change envisaged in efforts to manage habitat and fisheries, to reduce fishing capacity and to diversify income opportunities and to build up resilience and adaptive capacity, it is important that all family members, including women, are included in providing new livelihood and employment opportunities.

Publications are available:

Gender Brochure
Report of the Regional Technical Consultation on a Regional Approach to the Implementation of the FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (2016)
Experts Workshop on Regional Approach for the Implementation of FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries: Human Rights-Based Approach and Gender Equitability (2017)
Policy Brief: Applying Human Rights-based and Gender Equality Approaches to Small-scale Fisheries in Southeast Asia (2018)
SEAFDEC Gender Strategy (2019) (will be available soon)

Regional Gender Review- Joint Effort between Mangroves for the Future (MFF), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), and SEAFDEC-Sweden Project

Regional Gender Review- Joint Effort between Mangroves for the Future (MFF), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), and SEAFDEC-Sweden Project

The Regional Gender Study which was commenced in 2017 as a joint effort of the Mangroves for the Future (MFF), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), and SEAFDEC-Sweden Project was successfully completed in 2018. Data collection on gender patterns in coastal and marine resources management in South and Southeast Asia. The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project undertook the Gender Analysis in Kep Province of Cambodia, Trat Province of Thailand, and in Kaw Thaung Province of Myanmar. Results of the study were presented during the “Regional Dialogue on Gender Dimension in Coastal and Fisheries Resources Management in South Asia and Southeast Asia: Opportunities and Challenges” on 15-16 November 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand. While the Study has deepened the understanding on the gender dimension in coastal and fisheries resources management, during the Regional Dialogue, discussion was also made on how structural challenges are preventing the equitable opportunities for men and women in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Publications are available:

Gender in Coastal and Fisheries Resources Management: A Regional Synthesis Report (2018)
Gender Analysis Toolkit for Coastal Management Practitioners (2018)
Regional Dialogue on Gender Dimension in Coastal and Fisheries Resources Management in South Asia and Southeast Asia (2018)

Labor Aspects within the Fishing Industry in the ASEAN Region

Labor Aspects within the Fishing Industry in the ASEAN Region

Considering the importance of enhancing the competitiveness of the ASEAN fish and fishery products, the SEAFDEC Council during its 47th Meeting in 2015 decided that issues on labor in fisheries should be discussed among the Member Countries at the regional level. The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project convened the “First Regional Technical Consultation on Labor Aspects within the Fishing Industry in the ASEAN Region” on 25-27 February 2016 in Bangkok, Thailand, to provide a regional forum for the Southeast Asian countries to discuss the issues on labor in the fisheries sector and develop strategies in addressing such issues. As an output, the Consultation came up with recommendations on the required interventions (e.g. by SEAFDEC and others) with regards to securing the rights and improving the working conditions of people engaged in the fisheries sector including those of migrant workers (domestic and foreign), and ensuring their decent working conditions in the spirit of the ASEAN Community integration.

Publications are available:

Report of the First Regional Technical Consultation on Labor Aspects within the Fishing Industry in the ASEAN Region (2016)

Livelihood and Social well being

Livelihood and Social well being

Local partners:

CORIN-Asia Cambodia

The Collaborative Project on “Fisheries and habitat management, climate change and social well-being in Southeast Asia” being carried out by the CORIN-Asia-Cambodia in partnership with Coastal Cambodia Local Alliance (CCLA) to carry out a four-year (2014-2017) collaborative project on “Fisheries and habitat management, climate change and social well-being in Southeast Asia”, under the support of the Embassy of Sweden through the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) for coastal communities in the provinces of Kep, Kampot, and Preah Sihanouk in Cambodia.

Activities implemented comprising of 27 project activities which under four main components included 1) Enhance and conservation of coastal and marine resources. 2) Local institutional arrangement for integrated coastal zone management on coastal Cambodia 3) Climate change adaptation and social well-being and 4) Participatory monitoring and evaluation, documentation and dissemination.

In general, the implementation of project achieved expected outputs and objectives. All components and activities implemented through the Project are linked to each other with the aim of contributing to overall goals for the integrated coastal management of coastal Cambodia.

With the momentum of four years implementation, the project delivered concrete outputs and also spilled over its impacts on social well-being through better management of fishery resources in the coastal communities.

Learning Institute (LI), Cambodia

The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project in partnership with the Learning Institute of Cambodia implemented the capacity building activities on “Strengthening Community Fisheries Management and Livelihood Diversification in Cambodia” during 2013-2017, covered seven communities of Cambodia namely: Kampong Samaki CFi (Kampot province), Phum Thmey CFi (Kep province), Chum Pu Khmao CFi (Preah Sihanouk province) of Coastal provinces and Koh Keo CFi (Kampong Chhnang province), Anlung Raing CFi (Pursat province), Sdey Krom Rohal Soung (Battambang province) and Bak Amrek-Doun En (Battambang province) of Tonle Sap Region. The Project provided the awareness on the legal and constitutional rights of the fisher-folk communities around the Tonle Sap Lake and the Coastal Provinces of Cambodia by improving and diversifying livelihood options and sustainable management of Community Fisheries (CFi). The project will also look to enhance the capacity of these communities as well as improve the recognition of the role of women to integrate a gender perspective.

Publications are available:

Fisheries Reforms and Right-Based Fisheries: Insights From Community Fisheries Across Cambodia
Training Manual on “Leadership and Community Organizing” (2015)
Training Manual on “Networking and Partnership Building (2015)
Training Manual on “Proposal Development and Report Writing” (2015)
TOT and Facilitation Skill Module (2015)
Training Manual on “Natural Resource Management and Planning” (2015)
  VDO: Training on Gender in Community Fisheries Management
  VDO: Networking and Partnership Building Training in Battambang
  VDO: Training on NRM and Planning at Battambang Province (How to manage natural resource)
  VDO: Training on Leadership & Community Organizing Kampong Chhnang CFi
  VDO: Community Exchange visit video
  VDO: Participation of CFi member in Mangrove Plantation
  VDO: The change of women perspective from Bak Amrek CFi
  VDO: A Day in the Life of Srey Mom
  VDO: Youth in Communities Fisheries of Koh Keo

Sustainable Development Foundation (SDF), Thailand

Sustainable Development Foundation (SDF) in collaboration with the SEAFDEC-Sweden project implemented the project ‘Towards an Ecosystem-based Approach to Fisheries Management in Trat Bay’ which was implemented in 11 sub-districts of Trat Province in Eastern Thailand.

The Project has established effective multi-stakeholder collaboration between a range of local stakeholders, including fisher communities, local administrations and provincial level government agencies. The project has also promoted and supported local initiatives on sustainable fisheries management, fisheries livelihoods development, and the conservation and rehabilitation of marine and coastal resources.

As a result of the project’s interventions over the past two years (2016-2018), fisher communities, and in particular small-scale fishers, are now networked together and formally organized in a way that was not previously the case. They have come together in the form of the Trat Bay fishers network. The project also supported local women to form groups to strengthen the role of women and worked on the livelihood development activities.

Publications are available:

ระบบบูรณาการข้อมูลพหุภาคีเพื่อการจัดการทรัพยากรประมงบนฐานระบบนิเวศอ่าวตราด (Thai version)
An Integrated multi-stakeholder information system for ecosystem-based management of fisheries resources in Trat bay
Small-scale fishers and the ecosystem-based management of fisheries and marine and coastal resources in Trat bay
Situational analysis of the potential climate change impacts on coastal communities: Recommendations for supporting the adaptation of communities emphasizing area-based, rights-based and gender sensitive approaches case study of the coastal communities of Trat bay

CORIN-Asia Myanmar

The SEAFDEC-Sweden Project supported the CORIN-Asia Myanmar to conduct the capacity building activities to increase awareness and knowledge on managing the resources and associated environment in Pu Lone Tone Tone, Kaw Thaung, Myanmar by participation of from villagers and other stakeholder including officials from local and national administration particularly from forestry, fisheries and general administration. Through several consultations and meetings, people in the village are more knowledgeable about fisheries and other natural resources management, their role in that management, importance of sharing information, building institutions, building alternative livelihood options etc.

During the implementation, a bunch of trained personnel comprising volunteers, department officials and officials from local administration were well knowledge and are capable of conducting field surveys using different RRA and PRA Tools. They also have learned participatory approaches and its importance in using fisheries, their ecosystems and habitats management, and natural resources management and conservation in general. The final product was draft Strategic Plan for Pu Lone Tone Tone, addressed resources management issue, environment management issues, alternative livelihood, social enterprise development options.